Henry II (born 1133, ruled 1154-89). The grandson of Henry I was the first Plantagenet king of England. His mother was Matilda, daughter of Henry I. His father was Geoffrey of Anjou, whom Matilda married after the death of her first husband, Emperor Henry V. Geoffrey was called Plantagenet for his habit of wearing in his cap a sprig of the broom plant, which in Latin is called planta genista.
Henry II was born in Le Mans, France, in March 1133. During his mother's conflict with Stephen for the English throne he was brought to England. Stephen eventually recognized his claim, and Henry became king of England in 1154 after Stephen's death.
Henry II held England and Normandy by his mother' s right. From his father he inherited, as French fiefs, the important counties of Anjou, Maine, and Touraine. By his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage with the French king Louis VII had been annulled, he acquired Poitou, Guyenne, and Gascony, so that he held most of the British Isles and about half of France.
Henry II reestablished law and order after the anarchy of Stephen's reign. He improved the military service by permitting the barons to pay "shield money, " or scutage, in place of serving in the army. With this he hired soldiers who would fight whenever and wherever he wished--an important means of maintaining control over the powerful nobles of the land.
His greatest work was the reform of the law courts. He brought the Curia Regis (King's Court) into every part of England by sending learned judges on circuit through the land to administer the "king's justice." Thus gradually one system of law took the place of the many local customs that had been in use. He also established the grand jury. Now accusations could be brought by a body of representatives of the community against evildoers who were so powerful that no single individual dared accuse them.
The petit jury, also called petty or trial jury, substituted the weighing of evidence and testimony by sworn men for the old superstitious trial by combat or by ordeal. (See also Jury System .) Henry even attempted to bring churchmen who committed crimes under the jurisdiction of the king's courts, but the scandal caused by the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket in the course of this quarrel forced him to give up this reform (see Becket ).
Henry's last years were embittered by the rebellion of his sons, aided by Philip Augustus of France and by their mother, the unscrupulous Eleanor. The king--old, sick, and discouraged--had to consent to the terms demanded of him. When he saw the name of John, his favorite son, among those of his enemies, he exclaimed, "Now let all things go as they will; I care no more for myself, nor for the world."
Two days later he died, muttering, "Shame, shame on a conquered king." He was succeeded by his son Richard (see Richard, Kings of England ). After Richard's death, in 1199, John came to the throne (see John of England ).
ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE
(1122?-1204). In an age known largely for the exploits of kings, princes, dukes, and their warriors, Eleanor of Aquitaine stood out as one of the most remarkable of women. She was the wife and mother of kings and a dominant political force in the Europe of her time.
Eleanor was born about 1122. Her father was William X, duke of Aquitaine. When he died in 1137 she inherited his domain, which was larger than that ruled by the king of France. The same year she married the heir to the French throne, who became King Louis VII a month afterward. During their 15-year marriage, she exerted considerable influence upon the running of the country and even accompanied him on the Second Crusade from 1147 to 1149. His jealousy led to separation, and the marriage was annulled; but she regained possession of Aquitaine.
In 1152 she married Henry Plantagenet, who became Henry II of England two years later. Together they had eight children, among whom were Richard I the Lion-Hearted and John, both of whom later became kings of England. This union brought together England, Aquitaine, Anjou, and Normandy under one rule. Two centuries later England's various French possessions became an underlying cause of the Hundred Years' War.
After the revolt of her sons against Henry II, Eleanor was kept in semi-confinement from 1174 to 1189, when Henry died. She then became active in affairs of state under her son Richard I and, after his death without an heir in 1199, under John. She worked for peace between France and England and helped preserve John's French domains. Eleanor died on April 1, 1204, in the monastery at Fontevrault in Anjou.
Notes for Alfonso Viii King Castile
Alfonso VIII (1155-1214), king of Castile (1158-1214); he succeeded to the throne on the death of his father, Sancho III.
Troubled by interference from Navarre in his youth, he later allied Castile with Aragln, forming a connection that was eventually to become the basis for the unification of Spain. He also established Castilian dominance over Leln. In 1170 he married Eleanor, daughter of King Henry II of England. From the 1170s, he resisted encroachments by the Almohads, Muslim invaders from northern Africa .
Defeated by the Muslim caliph Yakub al-Mansur at Alarcos in 1195, Alfonso and his allies won a major victory over the Muslim commander al-Nasir at Navas de Tolosa in 1212.
Alfonso VIII King of28 CASTILE (Sancho III, King of29) was born in Castile, Spain November 11, 1155. Alfonso died
October 6, 1214 in Huelgas, Burgos, Spain, at age 58. His body was interred in Huelgas, Burgos, Spain.
He married Eleanor ENGLAND Queen of Castile September 22, 1177 in Burgos, Spain. Eleanor was born October 13, 1162
in Falaise, Calvados, France. Eleanor was the daughter of Henry II King of ENGLAND and Eleanore Princess of
AQUITAINE. Eleanor died October 31, 1214 in Burgos, Spain, at age 52. Her body was interred in Huelgas, Burgos, Spain.
She was christened in Damfront, Normandy, France.
Alfonso VIII King of CASTILE and Eleanor ENGLAND Queen of Castile had the following children:
2226 i. Sancho Prince of27 CASTILE was born in Castile, Spain 1180. Sancho died 1180 in Castile, Spain, at age unknown.
+ 2021 ii. Berengaria Queen of LEON CASTILE was born 1181.
2227 iii. Henry Prince of CASTILE was born in Castile, Spain about 1182. Henry died in Dy, at age unknown.
2228 iv. Uracca Princess of CASTILE was born in Castile, Spain about 1185. Uracca died November 3, 1220 at age 35.
She married Alfonso II King of PORTUGAL 1206. Alfonso was born 1185. Alfonso was the son of Sancho I King of
PORTUGAL and Aldonza of BARCELONA. Alfonso died 1223 at age 38.
+ 2011 v. Blanca Princess of CASTILE was born March 1188.
2229 vi. Ferdinand Prince of CASTILE was born in Castile, Spain November 29, 1189. Ferdinand died October 14, 1209
at age 19. His body was interred in Dsp.
2230 vii. Constance Princess of CASTILE was born in Castile, Spain about 1190. Constance died 1243 at age 53.
2231 viii. Matilda Princess of CASTILE was born in Castile, Spain about 1192. Matilda died in Dy, at age unknown.
2232 ix. Sancha Princess of CASTILE was born in Castile, Spain about 1193. Sancha died in Dy, at age unknown.
2233 x. Constance Princess of CASTILE was born in Castile, Spain about 1194. Constance died in Dy, at age unknown.
2234 xi. Eleanor Princess of CASTILE was born in Castile, Spain 1195. Eleanor died 1253 at age 58. She married James I
King of ARAGON February 6, 1221. James was born February 1208. James died July 25, 1271 at age 63.
2235 xii. Henry I King of CASTILE was born in Castile, Spain April 14, 1203/1204. Henry died June 7, 1217 at age 13.
His body was interred in Dsp. He married Maud Princess of PORTUGAL 1216. Maud was born about 1205. Maud died
May 1, 1257 at age 51.
10. Alfonso Viii Of6 Castile (Sancho Iii Of5, Alfonso Vii Of4, Raymond Of3 Burgundy, William I2, Renaud I Of1) was born
1155. Alfonso died 1214.
He married Eleanor Plantagenet Of England 1169. Eleanor was born 1161. She was the daughter of King of England Henry_ii
and Eleanor Of Aquitaine DuchessAquitaine. Eleanor died 1214. B-M-D: Frederick L. Weis, Anc. Roots of 60 Colonists, (6th
ed, Balt: GPC, 1988, 1990),
Alfonso Viii Of Castile King of Castile and Eleanor Plantagenet Of England had the following children:
11 i. Blanche Of7 Castile. Blanche died 1253. She married Louis Viii Capet King of France 1200. Louis was born 1187. He
was the son of Philip Ii Of France King of France and Isabella Of Hainaut Cts. of Artois. Louis died November 8, 1226 in
Montpensier, Auvergne. (See Louis Viii Capet King of France for the continuation of this line.) B-M-D: Frederick L. Weis,
Anc. Roots of 60 Colonists, (6th ed, Balt: GPC, 1988, 1990),
12 ii. Berengaria Of Castile. Berengaria died 1244. She married Alfonso Ix Of Leon King of Leon. Alfonso was born 1166.
Alfonso died 1229. (See Alfonso Ix Of Leon King of Leon for the continuation of this line.) B-M-D: Frederick L. Weis, Anc.
Roots of 60 Colonists, (6th ed, Balt: GPC, 1988, 1990),