Lewis' Topographical Dictionary

Carrigaline (1842)

CARRIGALINE, a parish, partly in the county of the city of CORK, and partly in the barony of KINNALEA, but chiefly in that of KERRICURRIHY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 7 miles (S. E.) from Cork; containing 7375 inhabitants. This place was in early times called Beavor, or Bebhor, and derived its name from the abrupt rocky cliff on which are the remains of the ancient castle, built by Milo de Cogan in the reign of King John, and for nearly two centuries occupied by the Earls of Desmond, by whom it was forfeited, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The castle, together with the lands of Carrigaline and Balinrea, was then granted by the queen to St Anthony St. Leger, who demised them to Stephen Golding, from whom they were purchased by Sir Richard Boyle, afterwards Earl of Cork, and from him descended to the present proprietor, the Earl of Shannon. In 1568, the Lord-Deputy Sidney, after relieving the Lady St. Leger in Cork, advanced against this fortress, which he took from James Fitzmaurice after an obstinate resistance, and from this time during the entire reign of Elizabeth it had the reputation of being impregnable. In 1589, Sir Francis Drake, with a squadron of five ships, being chased by a Spanish fleet of superior force, ran into Cork harbour; and sailing up Crosshaven, moored his squadron in a safe basin, sheltered by Curribiny Hill, close under Coolmore. The Spaniards pursued, but, being unacquainted with the harbour, sailed round the shores without discovering the English fleet, and giving up the search, left it here in perfect security. The basin in which Sir Francis lay has since been called Drake's pool.

The parish is situated on the road from Cork to Tracton, and contains 14,254 statue acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at 16,606 per annum; the surface is pleasingly undulated, and the soil is fertile; a considerable part is under an improved system of tillage, and the remainder is in demesne, meadow, or pasture land. There is neither waste land nor bog; coal, which is landed at several small quays here, is the chief fuel. A light brown and purplish clay-slate is found; and limestone of very superior quality is raised at Shanbally, in large blocks, and after being hewn into columns, tombstones, &c., is shipped to Cork and other places. The appearance of the country is beautifully varied: the views from the high grounds are extensive and picturesque, commanding the course of the Awenbwuy, with the capacious estuary, called Crosshaven, and embellished with numerous gentlemen's seats. The principal are Coolmore, the residence of W. H. Worth Newenham, Esq., situated in a beautiful demesne of 545 acres, with a lofty square tower a little to the east of the house, which commands a magnificent prospect of the town and harbour of Cove, and the rich scenery of the river; Mount Rivers, of M. Roberts, Esq.; Waterpark, of Robert Atkins, Esq.; and, on the border of the parish, Ballybricken, of D. Conner, Esq. The village has a very pleasing appearance; it consists of several good houses and a number of decent cottages, extending into the parish of Kilmoney, on the south side of the river, over which is a bridge of three arches. There are three large boulting-mills, the property of Messrs. Michael Roberts and Co., capable of grinding 20,000 sacks of flour annually, of which the greater part is shipped for England from Cork. The trade consists chiefly in the export of corn, flour, and potatoes, and the import of coal and culm. The channel of the river has been lately deepened six feet, principally at the expense of Mr. Roberts, and vessels can now deliver their cargoes at the bridge. A creek runs up to Shanbally, and another forms the channel of Douglas, both of which are navigable for vessels of 40 tons' burden, which being up lime, sand, and manure, and take away limestone and bricks, the latter of which are made near Douglas. The opening of several new lines of road has been of great advantage to the district. The river Awenbwuy, winding through a rich corn country, is well situated for commerce, and salmon and trout are caught in abundance. Fairs are held in Carrigaline on Easter-Monday, Whit-Monday, Aug. 12th, and Nov. 8th, for cattle, sheep, and pigs. There is a penny post to Cork; and a chief constabulary police force has been stationed here. Petty sessions are held in the court-house every Tuesday, and a manorial court once in three weeks.

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Cork, and in the patronage of the Earl of Shannon: the tithes amount to 1080. The church is a very handsome edifice of hewn limestone, in the later English style of architecture, with a massive square tower crowned with pinnacles and surmounted by an elegant and lofty octagonal spire pierced with lights: it was erected in 1823, near the site of the former church, and enlarged in 1835, by the addition of a north transept; the windows are very light, chaste, and beautiful, particularly the eastern one, the upper part of which is ornamented with stained glass. near the west front is a lofty arch, beneath which is an altar-tomb of grey marble, with a recumbent leaden figure, now much mutilated, of Lady Suanna Newenham, who died in 1754. A chapel of ease has been built at the village of Douglas, in the northern division of the parish, within the liberties of the city of Cork. There is no glebe-house, but a glebe of 6a. 3r. 9p. In the R. C. divisions the parish partly forms the head of a union or district, comprising the four ploughlands called Carrigaline and the parishes of Templebready and Kilmoney, and is partly in the union of Douglas or Ballygervin, and partly in that of Passage: the chapel is in that part of the village of Carrigaline which is on the south side of the river. The male and female parochial schools are supported by subscription; the school-rooms were built in 1834. At Raheens are schools for boys and girls, the former supported by a donation of 50 per ann. from W. H. W. Newenham, Esq., and the latter by Mrs. Newenham; a school is aided by annual subscriptions, amounting to 4, and there are other hedge schools in the parish, altogether affording instruction to about 450 children, and a Sunday school. Here is also a dispensary. At Ballinrea there is a mineral spring, which is considered to be of the same kind as that of Tunbridge Wells, and has been found efficacious in cases of debility; and near it is a holy well, dedicated to St. Renogue, which is resorted to by the country people on the 24th of June.

Carrigrohane (1842)

CARRIGROHANE, or KILGROHANMORE, a parish, partly in the county of the city of CORK, but chiefly in the barony of BARRETTS, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Cork; containing 1921 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the south bank of the river Lee, over which is a stone bridge connecting it with the parish of Inniscarra, and on the new line of road through Magourney to Macroom. The whole comprises 2578 acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at 4655 per annum; and that part of it which is included within the barony of Barretts contains 1556 acres, valued at 2136, according to the county estimate. The land is of excellent quality, and the farms, being in the occupation of persons with capital, are in an excellent state of cultivation. From the low price of grain, the produce of the dairy and the grazing of cattle have been found more profitable than growing corn; the lands are therefore being converted into dairy farms. The parish forms part of the limestone district that extends from near the source of the river Bride, along its southern bank, across the vale to the west of the city of Cork, and passing through its southern suburbs, terminates at Blackrock. The quarrying of limestone and manufacture of gunpowder at Ballincollig encourage that industry among the people of which the fruits are seen in their comfortable appearance and the improved state of their habitations. On the river Lee are some extensive mills, capable of manufacturing from 350 to 400 sacks of flour weekly. About a mile and a half from the church are several very handsome houses, occupied by the officers connected with the garrison of Ballincollig.

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Cork, united from time immemorial to the rectories of Curricuppane and Corbally, and to one-fourth of the rectory of Kinneagh, which four parishes constitute the corps of the precentorship of the cathedral of St. Finbarr, Cork: the tithes of the parish amount to 330, and of the whole union to 943. The church is a small plain edifice, situated near the river Lee, to the repairs of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently made a grant of 143. There is no-glebe house in the union, but a glebe of 22 acres and 38 perches. In the R. C. divisions this parish, together with the parishes of Kilnaglory and Inniskenny, and a small part of that of Ballinaboy, form the union of district of Ballincollig, where there is a chapel. There are male and female parochial schools supported by subscriptions; a national school at Ballincollig, in which are about 100 boys and 70 girls; a public and two private schools, one of which is for infants, in which are about 60 boys and 40 girls; and a Sunday school supported by the rector. Behind the church are considerable remains of the ancient castle, and the fine ruins of a more modern house, of great strength, of which nearly the whole of the outer walls are remaining. The turrets, pierced with loop-holes, which project from the upper story of the latter building, indicate that it was build about the reign of Queen Elizabeth, but the castle is evidently much older and both were ruined in the war of 1641. At Ballincollig are the ruins of an extensive castle, situated on an isolated rock which rises in the midst of a fertile plain. This castle was built by the Barrett family, in the reign of Edw. III. William Barrett joined in the insurrection of the Earl of Desmond against Elizabeth, but was pardoned by Her Majesty and received into favour. In the war of 1641, it was in the possession of the insurgents, who were dispossessed by Cromwell in 1645: it was garrisoned for Jas. II. in 1689, but after his flight fell into decay, and is now a stately ruin, with a very strong and lofty square tower still nearly perfect.

Castlelyons (1837)

, a market town and parish, partly in the barony of Condons and Clongibons, but chiefly in the Barony of Barrymore, county of Cork and barony of Munster, two miles from Rathcormac, containing 5627 inhabitants of which number, 689 are in the town. It was originally called Castle Lehane, or Castle O'Lehan from the castle belonging to the sept of Lehan situated here and it is being stated that three cantreds here which were unjustly detained from Robert Fitzstephen by his son Ralph were subsequently granted by King John to William de Barry, who erected a castle here in 1204 and his descendants for some ages were called the Lords Barry of Castle Lehane. In 1307 John de Barry founded an abbey here, which at the dissolution was granted to Richard Boyle, First Earl of Cork, who assigned it to his daughter, wife to David, First Earl of Barrymore, "to buy her gloves and pins". Another of the De Barrys founded a monastery here for Carmelites or White Friars. In 1645, Lord Broghill, being posted here with the Royal Cavalry to cover the army under Lord Inchiquin, that was besieging Castlemartyr, drew the Irish cavalry under Gen. Purcell into an action, commonly called the battle of Castlelyons, in which he gained a decisive victory. The castle nevertheless, fell into Lord Castlehaven's hands soon afterwards.

The town is situated on the river Bride, and on the road from Dublin to Rathcormac and contains 116 houses. Here are a woollen-manufactory and dye-house, a corn-store and flourmills, the last built in 1808, worked by the river Bride and manufacturing 10,000 bags of flour annually. The market is on Thursday and great quantities of poultry are sold. A constabulary police force has been established in the town and there has been a penny-post established to Rathcormac. A manorial court is held once every three weeks for debts not exceeding 40s, by a seneschal, under S.Perrot Esq. of Cork, who has recently purchased the manor.

There is no glebe-house but a glebe of two acres. In the Roman Catholic divisions, this parish is head of the union or district comprising Castlelyons, Coole and Britway; the chapel is at Bridgelane, a quarter of a mile from the town. There is a school supported by Mr Corbett, in which are about 80 boys and 40 girls and there are also two private schools, in which are about 100 boys and 50 girls, and a town superintended by the vicar. Samuel Perrot, Esq. erected a school at an expense of 300 and contributed 20 yearly towards its support, which has been discontinued. A bequest of 500 has been made by the late Rev Mr Harrison, formerly vicar of this parish, in trust to the dean and chapter of Cloyne, the interest of which, now amounting to 27 annually is distributed among the Protestant poor of the parish.

Part of the abbey, erected in 1307 is still standing connected with the parish church. Of the castle of the Lehans there are no remains, but on taking down some of the walls, to make room for the castle of the Lords Barrymore, a stone was found with the inscription Lehane O'Cvllane Hoc Fecit MC111. Nothing now remains of the castle of the De Barrys, but part of the arches on which it stood, and some of the partition walls.

Crosshaven (1842)

CROSSHAVEN, a village, in the parish of TEMPLEBREADY, barony of KERRYCURRIHY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Carrigaline; containing 513 inhabitants. It is situated on the noble estuary to which it gives name, but which is more generally known as the river Carrigaline, within the harbour of Cork, opposite to Dog's nose Point, and a little west from Ram Head; it comprises about 100 houses, which are small, but well built; and is one of the eight coast-guard stations in the district of Cove. In the creek a vessel may ride in 10 or 12 feet of water. Crosshaven House, the residence of T. Hayes, Esq.; Camden Fort (described in the account of Templebready), and several handsome villas and lodges, the summer residences of those who visit the coast for sea-bathing, closely adjoin the village. An extensive fishery was formerly carried on, but it has so much declined that only five small vessels remain, and these are occasionally employed in the grain and coal trade.

Donoughmore, Co. Cork (1842)

DONOUGHMORE, a parish, partly in the barony of BARRETTS, but chiefly in that of EAST MUSKERRY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 12 miles (W. N. W.) from Cork, on the new line of road to Kanturk; containing 6794 inhabitants. This parish comprises 22,000 statue acres, of which 8000 acres, which had been forcibly withheld from the see of Cloyne *to which nearly half the parish belongs), since the year 1539, were, in 1709, recovered by Bishop Crow, ad are now the property of that see, but in the hands of the Commissioners under the Church Temporalities act: about 2880 acres are bog and mountain, and the remainder is good arable and pasture land. The soil is generally cold and west, except in the neighbourhood of Derry, where the lands are well cultivated and vary productive. Not more than one-fourth of the land is under tillage; the remainder is mountain pasture and bog, especially the northern part of the parish, where a vast tract of healthy bog and moorland extends to the summit of the Boggra mountain, on which numerous herds of cattle are pastured. The principal residences are Derry, that of J. B. Gibbs, Esq.; Derry Cottage, of the Rev. W. Meade; Kilcullen, of Jer. Lynch, Esq.; Firmount, of Horace Townsend, Esq.; and Fortnaght, of the Rev. Morgan O'Brien. The new line of road from Cork to Kanturk passes through this wild district, and will contribute greatly to its improvement: the rivers Dripsey and Awenbeg have their rise in it. Fairs are held on May 18th and Nov. 21st for general farming stock. Near the cross of Donoughmore is a constabulary police barrack. A manorial court is held under the Bishop of Cloyne, and petty sessions monthly. The rectory constitutes the corps of the prebend of Cloyne in the cathedral of St. Colman, and in the patronage of the Bishop: the tithes amount to 1100. The glebe-house is a very old building; the glebe comprises 14 acres of fertile land. The church is a small and very old edifice in a state of great dilapidation, and is about to be rebuilt by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church; there are two chapels, one near the cross of Donoughmore, and the other at Fortnaght, the former a spacious and neat edifice, the other a small plain building. A school is supported by the rector, in which about 20 children are educated; at Garrane is a school in which about 30 boys and 20 girls are instructed, and for which a house was given by Mr. Stowell; and there are five pay schools, in which are about 300 boys and 160 girls. Between this parish and Kilshanig is the Pass of Redshard, where Lord-President St. Leger, in 1641, drew up such forces as he could raise to oppose the insurgents coming from the county of Limerick, and commanded by Lord Mountgarret, but on their messengers showing him their pretended commission from the king, he disbanded his forces and retired to Cork. This place gives the title of Earl to the family of Hutchinson.

Dursey Island (1837)

DURSEY, an island, in the parish of KILNAMANNAGh, barony of BERE, county Of CORK, and province Of MUNSTER, 8 miles (8. W.) from Castletown; containing 198 inhabitants. On this island part of the French army landed in 1796, and on the following day were taken prisoners in Castletown. After this the government erected a signal tower on the highest point of the island, which formed the first of a line of signal stations that extended to Cork. Dursey is situated off the south-west coast, at the extremity of a peninsula whose shores border the entrances to Bantry bay and Bearhaven on one side, and to the river Kenmare on the other.

It comprises 754 acres, the greater part of which is a rough mountainous tract, interspersed with rocky pasture and coarse arable land. It is the property of the Earl of Bantry. Between the island and the mainland is a narrow sound, through which vessels may sail with a favourable wind and tide; and near it is Ballydonaghan bay, which is deep water, having from 20 to 30 fathoms close to the shore. Contiguous to the island are several rocks. Near the ferry crossing the sound are the remains of a very old church, called Our Lady's abbey, consisting of part of the walls only.

Innishannon (1837)

INNISHANNON, a post-town and parish, partly in the Eastern Division of the barony of EAST CARBERY, but chiefly in the barony of KINNALEA, county of CORK, and province Of MUNSTER, 12 miles (8. W.) from Cork, and 138 from Dublin, on the river Bandon, and on the mail coach road from Cork to Bantry; containing 3840 inhabitants, of which number, 653 are in the town.

This place, which was formerly of considerable importance, and, according to Smith's History of Cork, was walled and had several castles in it, was, together with its ferry across the Bandon, granted by Hen. V. to Philip de Barry in 1412. The castle of Downdaniel, at the confluence of the Brinny and Bandon, built by Barry Oge in 1476, and the castle of Cariganass, built by the McCarthys, were both besieged and taken during the war of 1641 by the garrison of Bandon.

castle, which in the same war was held for the insurgents by its owner, Patrick Roche Fitz-Richard, was surrendered to Capt.Adderley in 1642. The castle of Annagh, near this parish, was garrisoned for the King on the breaking out of the war, and obstinately defended by its proprietor, Sir Philip Perceval against the army of Gen. Barry in 1642. From its situation on a small island in the centre of a deep morass, it was also enabled to hold out against the forces of Lord Castlehaven, till it was almost battered to pieces, when the commander of the garrison, named Fisher, who in several sallies had killed about 300 of the assailants, being still resolved to defend it, was invited to a conference by the besieging army and treacherously slain; the garrison then agreed to surrender on condition of quarter, but were all put to the sword.

The present town consists principally of one neatly built street, containing 108 houses, of which several are of a very superior description, and has a cheerful and pleasing appearance. The river Bandon is crossed here by a neat bridge of six arches, over which the new line of road is carded; and its situation on the river, which is navigable for vessels of 200 tons' burden up to Colliers' quay, and for lighters into the town, is well adapted for an extensive trade. A canal to Bandon was contemplated some short time since, and a rail road to Bantry is at present under consideration. The cotton-manufacture was formerly carried on here to a considerable extent, but is now almost extinct. Fairs are held on May 29th, and Get. 3rd; a constabulary police force is stationed here, and petty sessions are held on alternate Tuesdays in a sessions-house.

The parish comprises 7080 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at 5815 per annum : the land is in general good, though in some parts the soil is light and shallow, the substratum being generally schistus based on argillaceous grit; the system of agriculture has been lately much improved. There are about 300 acres of woodland in gentlemen’s' demesnes, and a tract of turbary of about 100 acres. Indications of copper exist, but no attempt has been made to work it. The alternation of greenstone and freestone is singularly curious, and the sudden transitions of the rocks also render the parish interesting to the geologist.

The scenery is beautifully picturesque; the vale in which the town is situated is covered with hanging woods extending on the west to Bandon, and on the cast to Shippool, and is on both sides embellished with pleasing villas and thriving plantations, among which the tower of the church forms a picturesque feature. The principal seats are Downdaniel, the residence of the Rev. R. L. Conner, a modern mansion near the site of the castle of that name, partly built with the materials of the ancient structure, and commanding a fine view of the vale; Fir Grove, of R. Quin, Esq.; Shippool House, of Capt. Herrick, R.N.; Woodview, of F. Seely, Esq.; Sunning Hill, of Mrs. Quinn; Belmont, of Major Meade; Cor Castle, of Chambre Corker, Esq.; Frankfort, of Major Westeott; the residence of the Rev. T. Meade; and Rock Castle, of E. Becher, Esq., on the lawn of which and on the margin of the river were the ruins of Cariganass castle, on removing which, by the uncle of the present proprietor, several cannon balls were found.

The river above the town abounds with fish, and is much frequented by anglers. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cork, and in the patronage of the representatives of the late Jas. Kearney, of Garrettstown, Esq.; the tithes amount to 632. 6. 11. ; the tithes of the ploughland of Skevanahish, amounting to 42. 10., are appropriated to the see, and payable to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. There is no glebe-house, and the glebe comprises only about half an acre. The church, situated in a thick plantation near the river, is a very neat edifice with a square tower. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also the parishes of Brinny, Knockavillyand Leighmoney ; the chapel was built at an expense of 1500, in 1829, on a site of two acres presented by E. Hale Adderley, Esq. There is also a place of worship for Weeleyan Methodists. About 100 children are taught in two public schools, of which the parochial school is supported by a grant of 30 per annum, from the trustees of Erasmus Smith's fund, and a donation from the rector, who provides a house rent-free; and there are four private schools, in which are about 250 children. The late T. R. Adderley, Esq., bequeathed 5 per annum to the poor; Dr. Synge, Bishop of Cork, who died in 1678, made a bequest to the parish, of which nothing is at present known. A dispensary is supported in the usual manner. On the lands of Barnas is an extensive circular fortress, surrounded by a double rampart and fosse, in which Barry Oge encamped when driven from Downdaniel Castle ; and near it is a powerful chalybeate spring, containing a large portion of carbonic acid gas.

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