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Legal Families & Charact's of Civil Law & C/L

Legal Families

  1. Types
    1. Civil
      1. Codified v. Uncodified
        1. Uncodified if not have civil code as center 4 all other leg.
      2. Franco -Roman
      3. Germ.
      4. Scandinavian
        1. No comprehensive code but smaller scale codes
        2. Transf. piece of leg. 2 each country 4 busi.
        3. Sweden most imp.
          1. Three stt's like Const.
            1. Instrument of govt
            2. Act of succession 4 King
            3. Act 4 free press
          2. Ombudsman
            1. Takes complaints & watches govt 4 parliament, competition, & free press
    2. C /L
      1. Countries such as US, Eng., Australia, Etc.
    3. Soc. Countries
      1. Govt reg's all
      2. Civil law & codification influences
    4. Relig. / Islamic
      1. Countries such as Iran, Arabs, & Former French Colonies
      2. Law based on Koran / revelation not rsn
    5. Trad.'al
      1. Tribes in Africa
      2. Asia where introd. W law on surface but follow trad. of own law
        1. Jap. took Germ. codes but ord. cit. still take prob. 2 elders
  2. Criteria 2 Disting. Families
    1. Origins of Law
    2. Org. of Law
    3. Style of Legal Sys.
      1. Historical devt
      2. Peculiar charact's
        1. French w/brief cods
        2. Islam where Khadi talks 2 God 2 dec. cases
      3. Source of legal devt / ideology
      4. Liberalism
      5. Indiv's autonomy
      6. Relig. origin
      7. Culture
    4. Dif. Approaches
      1. Prof'l so law on top of politics
      2. Polit. interference
      3. Trad'al

Charact's of C/L & Civil Law

  1. Civil Law
    1. Rule Oriented
    2. Codes & Gen. Concepts
      1. Abstract gen. lang. in codes 2 go beyond partic. facts
      2. Sys. approach w/concept of person, things, axn, & oblgn
      3. Gaps in codes filled by local customs / unwritten rules
    3. Judges Interp. Law
      1. No legal oblgn 2 follow precedents but gen'ly follow
      2. Start w/codes & only bring in cases 2 interp. codes
      3. Codes R gen. so can go beyond positive law
    4. Commentaries 4 Sections
      1. Look @ treatises, textbks, & commentaries 2 dec. cases
    5. History of Codification in Euro.
      1. In 17th & 18th Cent.
        1. Scholars adopted & modernize Roman law by systematization
      2. Enlightenment of 19th Cent.
        1. Codification w/rsn & Roman law
        2. Parliament passed leg. & judges only interp.
      3. Unification & Harmonization of Euro. After WW's
        1. World Cong. in 1900
          1. Unify busi. law
  2. C /L
    1. Fact Oriented
    2. Cases
      1. Jud'al dec's R law in itself
      2. Dec. partic. case by specif. facts
      3. Judges legally bound 2 follow precedents & have stare decisis
        1. Self imposed restraint
        2. Judges still give other rsns 4 dec'ing case anyway
    3. Stt's / Codes
      1. Specif. 2 fill gaps in cases 4 remedy approach
      2. Used 2 connect 2 cases
      3. Strict construction of stt's b/c judges got pwr before leg.
    4. History of Precedent Doctrine
      1. In early 19th cent., judges made this doc. b/c didn't want leg'ors in Eng. 2 have pwr
      2. Same X as Enlightenment, so tried 2 make law predictable
  3. Mixed Jxn's
    1. Philippine
    2. British Guyana

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Ms. Haeji Hong

10/26/1997