Title 7: Specif. Prob's of Relig., Nat'l Origin, Race, & Sex

Specif. Prob's of Prohibited Classif.

  1. Priority of Protection: From Lowest 2 Highest
    1. Relig.
    2. Sex
    3. Nat'l Origin
    4. Race

Accommodating Ee's Relig.: 701)j

  1. Def. of Relig.
    1. Belief
      1. EEOC guideline incl's moral & ethical belief as long as sincerely held w/strength of relig. view
    2. Pract.
    3. Observ.
  2. Structure
    1. PFC
      1. Bona fide belief / sincerely held belief sys. where complying w/er's reqt. is contrary 2 relig. faith
      2. Informed er
      3. Ee discharged b/c of refusal 2 comply
    2. Er
      1. Can rebut PFC /
      2. Aff. defense that can't accom. w/o undue hardship
        1. Req'ing er more than de minimis is undue hardship
    3. Pretext If Er Rebuts PFC

Nat'l Origin

  1. Need
    1. Nat'l Orig. +
    2. Discrim.
  2. Can Discrim. by Citizenship Unless
    1. Pretext
    2. Intentional discrim.
    3. Disparate impact on non-cit.
  3. For. Lang. v. Eng.
    1. Legit. busi. rsn / job rel.'ed 2 discrim. heavy for. accent
    2. No rt. 2 culture @ job so can req. Eng. only if no sig. impact

Race & Color

  1. Color Blind Stt.
    1. Broad construction of race & color
    2. Any disp. treatment, even if beneficial

Sex

  1. Sex Discrim.
    1. As long as dif. treatment btwn men & women, not by activity
    2. Sex +
      1. Can't discrim. if + is fund.'al rt. / immutable charact.
      2. Good grooming rule ok but not if burdern higher 4 1 gender
    3. Pregnancy
      1. Const'al E/P
        1. Not discrim. 2 discrim. by preg.
        2. Preg. v. non-preg. which incl's women so no intentional discrim.
      2. Preg. Discrim. Act (PDA): 701)k
        1. Discrim. if fire only 4 preg., childbirth, / rel'ed condition
        2. Preg. is phys. disability so must treat preg. women same
        3. Er's vol. benefits must B given ='ly
      3. CA Stt
        1. Title 7 not trump state law if consistent w/Title 7
        2. Can treat preg. women better than other disabled people in CA
        3. Er must give rsbl unpaid leave up 2 4 mo. 4 preg.
        4. Rt 2 come back @ same / similar job
    4. Parental Leave
      1. Gender Neutral 4 Child Care
      2. FMLA & CA's FEHA
        1. Cov's 4
          1. Er w/50 / more ee's
          2. Eligible ee worked 1250 hrs w/in 12 mo. per.
        2. Can get 12 wks of unpaid leave w/in 12 mo. per. 4
          1. Infant care
          2. Newborn child
          3. Newly adopted
          4. Ill parents / spouse
          5. Own serious med. condition, not disability
        3. Req. proof of childbirth / adoption
        4. If both spouses work 4 er, share 12 wks
        5. Fed & state run concurrently but women can tack PDA & FMLA
        6. State ee's can get 1 yr. of unpaid leave
  2. Sex Harassment
    1. Quid Pro Quo Case (ez'er 2 get liab.)
      1. Conditions job on grant of sex favor
      2. Harass by
        1. Unwelcome sex advances
        2. Submit implicitly / explicitly 4 condition of empl.
    2. Hostile Env. Theory Case
      1. Unrsbl interference w/work perf. by hostile work env.
        1. Suff'ly severe & pervasive 2 B sex harass
        2. Form of intentional discrim. in damage
      2. Stand. 4 finding conduct created hostile env.
        1. Rsbl person stand. +
          1. Might / not 2 rsbl woman's stand.
        2. P subj'ly perceived
          1. Totality of circ. incl's freq. of conduct, severity, etc.
        3. Intent of harasser irrelev.
    3. Liab.: EEOC Guideline
      1. Supervisor, then er VL w/o consid. auth'ed act / knew about it
      2. Co-worker, then er liab. if knows / should've known unless er took imm. & corrective axn
      3. Non ee's / 3rd party, then er liab. only when er knows / should've known & fails 2 take imm. & corrective axn
    4. Indiv. Liab.
      1. Title 7 holds entities liab. not indiv. so supervisor shouldn't B
      2. CA's FEHA
        1. Stand. 4 all harassment is knew / should've known & failed 2 take imm. corrective axn
        2. Def's er as empl'ing 1 / more persons 4 harassment
        3. Some CA cts say supervisor indiv. liab.
  3. Sexual Orientation
    1. Fed
      1. Some recog. same sex harassment w/quid pro quo but split
      2. Title 7 not recog. sex orientation discrim.
    2. CA
      1. FEHA
        1. Tracks Title 7 so no recog.
      2. CA Const. E/P & Pvcy Cl.
        1. Can't excl. w/o showing unfit by E/P
        2. Pvcy cl. covers priv. & pub. sector
      3. Labor Code
        1. Can't discrim. b/c priv. er can't interfere w/ee's politics
      4. New Stt 1102.1
        1. Er is empl'ing 5 / more ee's or any person acting as agent of er dir'ly / indir'ly incl'ing state ers
        2. Codifies Pac Tel Case


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My 4, 1997

Ms. Haeji Hong

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