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COLONIALISM: WEEKS 3-8

WEEK THREE

HISTORY QUESTION OF THE WEEK: What is the oldest town founded in America by Europeans? St. Augustine, Florida, which was settled by Spain in 1565.

Objective: What was England's first colony like?
  1. Your parents go out of town. They give you the option of going with them or staying home and caring for your brothers and sisters. You accept the responsibility of staying home. a) List 3 things you can do now that you could not do before. b) List 3 things you were able to do before that you could not do now. (Teacher explanation: Colonialists still lived under Mother England's (your parent's) rules and still had responsibilities to take care of, but Mother England (your parents) was not able to intervene as much because an ocean separated them.)
  2. Make "Unit I: Colonialism" cover page (2 minutes)
  3. Discuss: a) In 1400, who was in the land now called the US? b) in 1500? c) What happened? Why? Discuss 2 main motives for exploration and colonies (money and religion). Have them draw symbols for those two things on their unit cover page.
  4. Show European Exploration Map. Read pp. 83-85.
  5. Show video "The Mystery of the Lost Colony of Roanoke," and have students answer worksheet with questions on video.
  6. WRAP-UP: ROANOKE AGAIN? The Queen of England has asked you to discover the reasons why Roanoke failed and to propose ways to correct the mistakes made at Roanoke. Create a t-chart to show the queen what you have discovered. Why Roanoke Failed/Plan for Success For example, your first entry might be: Lack of food…More money to buy food and plan to arrive in the spring.

Objective: Who paid for the colonies?
  1. You have $400 to spend on purchasing stock. After looking at the stock page on the overhead, select which stock(s) you would purchase. Why did you select the one(s) you purchased? (*This one requires some explanation before they start. Your overhead can be printed off the Internet on a page that shows how some of the better known stocks (like Coca-Cola and Walmart)did the day before.)
  2. Background: explain how stocks work & read pp. 94-95.
  3. Financing Jamestown Game:
    • I am the CEO of Virginia Company, a joint stock company. I have a nameplate that says CEO. I select two people to be my secretaries. They get nameplates that say, "Secretary." They'll collect money and pass out shares of stock. Everyone else gets a nameplate that says "Investor" along with $50 in fake money.
    • I tell the students that they are all merchants who want to make more money. I, the CEO of Virginia Company, am going to offer them an opportunity to invest in my company to finance colonial settlements.
    • First we discuss the problems and failures at Roanoke, but then I explain why my company believes there is more gold in the New World. In order for us to finance the exploration, I need to borrow their money. They can buy shares of stock in the company. As soon as we find gold, their shares of stock could be worth maybe 100 times or even 150 times what they pay for it. Plus, if at the end of the class, they are the richest person in the "boardroom," they will receive candy. Students can now purchase stock certificates (which say: Stock certificate, Virginia Company, This certificate entitles the holder to one share of the Virginia Trading Company and all profits and liabilities, 6 September 1606) for $10 a piece. My secretaries collect the money and pass out the certificates.
    • Tell the students that as a result of their investments, we were able to establish a settlement in Jamestown off the Virginia Coast in 1607. Let's read about it. Read from textbook about needs and hardships of Jamestown. Discuss the early problems in Jamestown. Explain that because of these problems, the value of each share has dropped 50%, so they're now only worth $5. Let investors sell stocks, receiving only $5 back per certificate. They can also buy ones at $5 each. Let them know they might never get any money back if the colony continues to fail, but if gold is found, the stocks could be worth much more.
    • Read from textbook about how Jamestown flourishes because of tobacco. Discuss why Jamestown was successful. Now the certificates are worth $50 each. Students count up how much profit they have. (We don't actually exchange money this time.) The person with the most gets candy.
  4. Chart out what happened during the game using two columns with arrows between. Here is what we used: Company or individuals want to establish a settlement in the New World >>> Company founders sell stocks. >>> Merchants purchase stocks, hoping to make a profit. >>> Invested money pays for supplies and ships. >>> Jamestown founded in the New World >>> Jamestown settlers find no gold, fall on hard times. >>> Value of stocks decrease; some stockholders sell for a loss. >>> Jamestown prospers by growing tobacco. >>> Value of stocks increase; stockholders can sell for a profit.
  5. WRAP-UP: MY EXPERIENCE AS AN INVESTOR: It is 1618. You either invested a lot or a little in the Virginia Company, and now you're writing a postcard to tell your nephew about your great fortune or misfortune. Describe to him your experiences/reactions to what occurred with your money. Include as much historical information as you can remember. Write at least 5 sentences.

Objective: What was Jamestown like then and what is it like now?
Homework: Get agenda signed
  1. You have been selected to be one of the first 100 people to live in an experimental colony on the planet Mars. There is no promise of you surviving or returning. Would you still go? Why (not)? (Teacher explanation: going to Mars = going to the colonies. Think of all the unknowns.)
  2. Have students make a time line of the major events that occurred during the colonization of Jamestown.
  3. Survival rate: Pull out 800 blocks or dried beans. This was the number of people who went there. Then pull out from the jar a pre-counted bag of 60 of the blocks or beans. This was how many survived.
  4. Create a KWL chart on Jamestown: What I know, what I want to know, and what I learned. Have students fill out the first two sections.
  5. Virtual Field Trip to Jamestown. (Internet) We go to the computer lab to do this. If your school doesn't have one available, you can have them work on the field trip in pairs at the class computer (s) while the rest of the students read from the book and answer questions about Jamestown and the early settlements. My first year I taught I had to do this. I wrote on the board the pairs and the order they would go. Each pair had 15 minutes to complete as much as they could. In order to have your students go on this virtual field trip, upload The Jamestown Master Sheet onto your school network (so that students can't change it). Print off Jamestown Student Sheet A and Jamestown Student Sheet B. In the computer lab, I alternate sheets A and B so that copying won't occur. Also, if you're using the classroom computers, you can give Sheet A to one student and Sheet B to the other student in the pair, so that they will both be doing most of their work on their own.
  6. Have students complete the third section (what I learned) on their KWL chart.

WEEK FOUR

HISTORY QUESTION OF THE WEEK: What was the first college to be founded in the British colonies, and what year was if founded? Harvard, the first college in the British colonies, was founded in 1636.

Objective: Why did/do people move to America?
  1. GOING TO A NEW SCHOOL Your parents move and so you have to start going to a new middle school. You are now forced to make new friends. In 3-5 sentences, describe what you encounter. What are your feelings? Does anyone help you? How?(Teacher explanation: new school = colonies. Native Americans helped.)
  2. Discuss how many times people have moved.
  3. Have students complete The Why People Move worksheet
  4. Categorize reasons into push/pull factors
  5. Read pp. 98-99 about the experiences of the Pilgrims.
  6. Watch video, "Strangers in a Strange Land". Take 10 notes. Stop the video frequently to explain.
  7. Chart Push/Pull factors for Pilgrims: Have students draw England, then Holland, then the New World. There should be two arrows (red representing push factor and purple representing a pull factor) pointing each direction between the three countries. Between England and Holland is written "Religion." Under England in red is written, "Persecution by King James I." Between Holland and the New World is written "Children, Jobs, and Religion." Under Holland in purple is written, "Holland was the most religiously tolerant country in Europe." In red is written, "Children started acting Dutch" and "They couldn't get jobs." Under the New World in purple is written, "Parents were hoping they would the only influence on their kids" and "Plenty of open fertile land to farm."

Objective: How did the 13 colonies develop?
Homework: Finish 13 colonies map and get agenda signed
  1. WHERE IN THE U.S.? After studying the picture on the overhead, answer the following questions: a) Where in the U.S. do you think this is? B) What did you see in the picture that made you think this? C) What type of weather do you think they have here? D) What types of jobs do you think the people who live here have?
  2. Notes and discussion on 13 colonies.
    • I use p. 61 from Adventure Tales of America: An Illustrated History of the United States, 1492-1877 (Signal Media Corporation) and have students highlight the important aspects.
    • Then, for the New England colonies, the students draw a boot. Above the boot, they write, "1620 - Pilgrims/Puritans/Separatists started Plymouth, Massachusetts on Cape Cod. Inside the boot they write "Covenant" as the Covenant between God and His people was what initially drove their society. They also write "Massachusetts" inside the boot as the other New England colonies started as a result of Massachusetts "booting out" dissenters, who then went on to start the other colonies. Off the toe of the boot, students write "Dissenters," with three lines. One says "Roger Williams" and "Rhode Island", the next says "John Wheeler" and "New Hampshire", and the third says, "Thomas Hooker" and "Connecticut."
    • For the Middle Colonies, the students draw a bread basket with four loaves of bread (as they were known as the bread basket colonies because of their grains production). On the bread basket write "Bread Basket Colonies." Write one of the following in each of the loaves of bread: Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Inside the loaf that says, "Pennsylvania" write "William Penn, Quaker, Radical religious tolerance." Be sure to mention Quaker oatmeal! Under the bread basket, write "Main export was grain." Below the bread basket, have students draw a dollar bill. In the middle, have them write "Cash Crops." Around the middle, have them write "Crops grown to be sold."
    • For the Southern colonies, have students drawn their hand as the South's economy required lots of hand for labor; plus, there were 5 colonies in the South. On each finger, write one of the following: Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Virginia (the thumb - as it was the most important). At the tip of each finger, write and then draw the following crops: Cotton (Maryland), Indigo (North Carolina), Tobacco (South Carolina), Rice (Georgia). Inside Georgia's finger, write "prisoners/buffer from Spanish colony" since it was initially a colony of prisoners and acted as a buffer from Fort St. Augustine.
  3. WRAP-UP: MAJOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE COLONIES: Create a chart including New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies. Summarize the major characteristics of each region. List at least 4 of the most important features of each region.
  4. Label map of 13 colonies.

WEEK FIVE

HISTORY QUESTION OF THE WEEK: What was the first American colony to abolish slavery? Vermont in 1777. The first of the original 13 Colonies to abolish slavery was Pennsylvania in 1780. (Either answer would be fine.)

Objective: How did the Colonies Differ?
Homework: Finish placard
  1. WHERE I WOULD LIVE: A) If you could live anywhere in the U.S., where would you live? Why? B) What would the climate (weather) be like? C) What type of geography (mountains, swamps, oceans, etc.) would be there? D) What types of jobs would most people have?
  2. Placards: Students work in groups of 2-3 to create placards advertising their assigned colony. The placards should be fashioned after ones from that time period. Have PLENTY of examples to show. I use the information and matrix from Colonial Life and the American Revolution: 1.2 An Introduction to Colonial Society: Examine the motivation for colonization and English settlement. Steps to success: a) READ over the information page on your colony. As you read, highlight important information. B) DISCUSS ideas for the placard. C) CREATE the placard. Grading Checklist: a) Does it include the important information (in your own words) from all 7 categories? B) Is it neat, creative, and historic looking? C) Did everyone in the group contribute equally?

Objective: How did the Colonies Differ?
Homework: Do you know your colonies? Worksheet and get agenda signed
  1. No warm-up. Sit in your group and prepare for your presentations.
  2. Presentations. Students fill out charts about each colony as each group presents their information. If a group does present the wrong information, the entire class will get that marked off on their worksheets, so the group had better make sure they have the correct information.
    Grading for presentation: A) Did they present (50) B) Was it presented, not read? (10) C) Was it clear (order, volume, dictation, speed)? (10) D) Did it cover each category correctly and completely? (20) E) Did everyone speak? (10). Grading for placard: A) Turned in on time (50) B) Includes all important information (20) C) Neat, creative, and historic looking (20) D) Everyone in the group participated (10).
  3. WRAP-UP: MOVING TO THE COLONIES: The year is 1733, and you live in England. You have decided to move to one of the 13 colonies. Write a letter to your best friend. Tell him/her which colony you are moving to and why (5 traits). Then try to convince him/her to join you (2+ reasons).
  4. Do you know your colonies? Worksheet

WEEK SIX

HISTORY QUESTION OF THE WEEK: What are three of the four states were names after people who were NOT kings or queens? Delaware (Lord De La Ware), New York (Duke of York), Pennsylvania (William Penn), Washington (George Washington)

Objective: How did we get the government that we have ?
Homework: Finish worksheet
  1. In 4+ sentences/phrases, describe what "freedom" means to you.
  2. Draw power pyramid: Draw a large triangle. At the top, outside the triangle, write "Least people" and "Most Power." At the base of the triangle, write "Most people" and "Least power." At the top of the pyramid write "KING: OWNS ALL LAND, MAKES ALL POLICIES", below that "PARLIAMENT: LAW-MAKING BODY THAT ADVISES THE KING", below that "GOVERNOR: THE KING'S REPRESENTATIVE WHO WAS APPOINTED BY THE KING TO RULE THE COLONY", below that "ASSEMBLIES: APPOINTED/ELECTED SELF COLONY LAW-MAKING BODY", below that "TOWN MEETINGS: GATHERING OF LAND-OWNING COLONISTS TO TALK ABOUT TAXES, MONEY, AND LAWS."
  3. House of Burgesses activity: Create cards for each student (20 with green dots, 7 with red dots, and 3 blank). Have each student draw a card. All the students with red dots get to sit at a special table in the middle of the desks. These students are the representatives. The students with the green dots are the land-owning people who have voted in the inner circle as representatives to make laws for them. The students with blank cards have to sit on the floor. They may not say anything. They represent all those who do not own land (slaves, indentured servants, and poor people). The inner circle gets to create three new class rules that will last for the rest of the class period. The land-owning people have 30 seconds to voice their ideas to the representatives. The representatives have 4 minutes to come up with new laws. I, the governor, have final authority to approve the rules. In making my decision, I will keep in mind what our principal, "The King" would approve. I carry out or veto the rules.
  4. T-chart out what the classroom activity was versus reality: Principal = King, Teacher = Governor of Virginia, Names of 7 students = Assembly/House of Burgesses, Most of class = property-owners, Names of those who couldn't vote = non-property owners
  5. WRAP-UP: HOUSE OF BURGESSES GOVERNMENT: In 3-5 sentences, describe your thoughts/feelings on this type of government.
  6. Road to the Constitution Notes: Draw 3 posters. On the first poster write "MAYFLOWER COMPACT (Everyone must agree to pass a law)." On the next write "FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONNECTICUT (World's first constitution)." On the third write "HOUSE OF BURGESSES (first legislative body of self-government)."
  7. Trail to self-government worksheet
  8. Pass out unit extra credit worksheet with the end of the "Common Course and Condition" in Plymouth and sections from Benjamin Franklin's Almanac to students who want them.

Objective: What was daily life like for the colonists?
  1. If your family decided to move to a foreign country, what 3 things would you want to know about daily life there?
  2. Tour of the colonies. Use the placards and worksheet from Colonial Life and the American Revolution: 1.3 Trip Through the Colonies: Journal Writing. Students read placards about various aspects of daily life during the colonial period and fill out a chart containing 3+ notes about each placard. Have one placard at each set of desks. Have pairs of students move to another station every 3 ½ minutes. Include some objects at pertinent stations (like a quilted item at "Quilting Bees," an ear of corn at "Native Americans Teaching and Helping Colonists" or at "Food", a piece of wheat at "Life on the Small Farm," etc.)
  3. WRAP-UP: COLONIAL LIFE A) Using the information you've read about today and what you've learned prior in class, complete the following diagram. On the left side, list 5+ push factors that caused colonists to leave England. On the right side list 5+ pull factors that attracted settlers to the 13 colonies. B) What was the most interesting aspect of colonial life? Why? C) Take the 3 questions you asked in the warm-up and answer them for the colonial period of America. If you never read an answer on a placard, make an educated guess.

Objective: How did the colonists get what they needed, and how did it lead it slavery?
Homework: Get agenda signed
  1. CLOTHES FROM ALL OVER: Using a partner if needed, read your clothing tags. Find out where at least 3 of your articles of clothing were made. Write the articles of clothing and in what countries they were made. Example: Shirt - Pakistan
  2. Read p. 118 on triangular trade.
  3. Notes: Draw triangular trade and go over Navigation Acts. Have students copy p. 65 from Adventure Tales of America: An Illustrated History of the United States, 1492-1877 (Signal Media Corporation). (Analogy: The government says that you can only buy clothes from The Gap. If you want to buy something from Dillards, you must order it through The Gap, and they'll charge you more than Dillards charged them PLUS a shipping fee.)
  4. Show an overhead of p. 140 from This is America's Story (Wilder, Ludlum, and Brown)
  5. Show slides of the slave trade from Colonial Life and the American Revolution: 2.3 Imagining the Horrors of Enslavement (Don't do the suggested activity or listen to the CD.) Be sure to mention that this is not when slavery first started. Think back to Israel in Egypt. It wasn't even the American Colonists who came up with the idea. African tribes were frequently at war with one another. They were already enslaving people from tribes they'd conquered. Initially, some colonists showed up with the need for hands to work the tobacco fields, and they had guns (to help the tribes win more tribal wars) and rum (that tasted good) to exchange for the prisoners of war that tribe had.
  6. WRAP-UP: ENSLAVED AFRICANS: Create a sensory figure (I heard, saw, tasted, smelled, felt…) for an enslaved African who's survived a voyage from Africa to colonial America.

WEEK SEVEN

HISTORY QUESTION OF THE WEEK: Name one of the Indian tribes who fought in the French and Indian war. In the struggle between France and England for control of North America (1754-63), most, but not all, Indians fought on the French side. They included the Abnaki of Maine, the Delaware and Shawnee of Pennsylvania, and the Potawatomi and Ottawa of Michigan and Wisconsin. The English relied on the six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy.


Objective: How and why did the colonists' relationship change with England?
(Before class, place tape across the room dividing it into ¼ and ¾. On the tape write, "Proclamation of 1763" and "Appalachian Mountains")

  1. Someone said, "War is always justified," meaning that whenever there's been a war, there's been a good reason for it. Do you agree or disagree? Write a response in 3-5 sentences explaining your opinion.
  2. Students draw North America in 1754.
  3. Notes on French and Indian War. Go through Colonial Life and the American Revolution: 3.1 From Comfort to Discontent: Analyze images depicting the changing relationship between Great Britain and its American colonies slides 1 & 2 on events leading to French and Indian War. Students take 4+ notes per slide.
  4. Students draw North America in 1763.
  5. Read "Declaration of Independence" for Freedom Week.


Objective: How and why did the colonists' relationship change with England?
Homework: Study for exam and get agenda signed

  1. UNIT EVALUATION a) What are 3 specific things you've learned during this unit on colonialism? B) What are 2 areas about which you still feel confused? C) List the one area from this unit about which you would have like to study more.
  2. Go through Colonial Life and the American Revolution: 3.1 From Comfort to Discontent: Analyze images depicting the changing relationship between Great Britain and its American colonies slides 3-6 on the French and Indian War. Students take 4+ notes per slide on the same page from the last class period. Have students all try to stand in taped off area (Proclamation of 1763). Ask how they feel and how the settlers probably felt not being able to spread out. Ask if any of them are tempted to step over the line into the rest of the classroom. Many of the colonists wanted to do the same over the Appalachian Mountains.
  3. WRAP-UP: FROM CONTENT TO DISCONTENT: Create 2 facial figures: one of a British colonist before the French and Indian War and one after. For each figure, use 2+ descriptive sentences explaining their thoughts/feelings toward England and WHY they feel that way.
  4. (3 minutes) Quickly glance over the Constitution for Freedom Week
  5. Review Game

WEEK EIGHT

HISTORY QUESTION OF THE WEEK: John Hancock (1737-93) is best remembered now for his flamboyant signature on the Declaration of Independence in 1776, but he was also the president of the Continental Congress. What helped him earn this position: his actions, funds, inspiration, or inventions? His most distinctive contribution to the rebel cause was the money (funds). Hancock was a merchant who had inherited a fortune from a smuggler uncle. He used his wealth to help finance the revolution. After the war, Hancock became governor of Massachusetts.

Objective: What have I learned about the 13 English colonies?
Homework: Finish worksheet
  1. Study/Cram Time
  2. 13 Colonies Exam
  3. Worksheet introducing next unit

Week Eight continues into the next unit.



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