Other Fed Stt's: Civil Rts Stt, EPA, & ADEA

Civil Rts Stt

  1. Must Prove Discrim. Intent 4 Both Stt's
  2. Section 1981
    1. All persons shall have same rt 2 make & enforce K
      1. Incl's making, perf., modif., & term. K
    2. Prohibit Race Discrim.
      1. Race is any ID'able ethnic group / sep. group / family
      2. Priv. axn ok
  3. Section 1983
    1. All Persons Under Color Causes Any Cit. 2 B Deprived of Rts
      1. Only pub. sector empl. / state axn
    2. C /A 4 Any Discrim. Under E/P
      1. Cov's gender discrim.
  4. Proced. of 1981 & 3
    1. Dir'ly 2 Ct
    2. S /L
      1. State residual tort S/L so 1 yr. in CA 2 file inct
    3. Notice of Claim When Sue State Agencies
  5. Remedies of 1981 & 3
    1. Unlimited Damages
    2. Punitive Damages
      1. Need more than intentional discrim.
      2. In CA, must prove
        1. Oppression
        2. Fraud
        3. Malice /
        4. Reckless Disregard
    3. Compensatory Damages
      1. Evid. through experts 2 prove emotional distress
    4. No Double Recov.
      1. If file Title 7 & 1981 / 3 together, then can't get Title 7 damages b/c get unlimited 1981 damages

Equal Pay Act (EPA)

  1. Part of FLSA: 206)d
  2. Structure: Narrower Fact Pattern Than Title 7
    1. PFC
      1. Pay rel'ed 2 wages like salary + fringe benefits
      2. Un= pay by sex
        1. Dif. in fringe is dif. in pay 2
      3. For subst'ly = work
        1. Skill
        2. Effort
        3. Responsibility
        4. Similar working cond.'s
        5. Have @ least 1 man doing subst'ly = job as woman 4 comparison
        6. Look @ actual job, not job titles
    2. Er's Aff. Def.'s
      1. Sen. sys.
      2. Merit sys.
      3. Quantitative / qualitative
      4. Or any factor other than sex
        1. If P shows factor incorp. historical discrim., er must show acceptable busi. rsn
        2. Can arg. mkt demand 4 1 indiv. but not 4 group of people
    3. Can't Lwr Men's Wages 2 Equalize
  3. Remedies
    1. Double Back Pay
      1. Unpaid min. wage + amt. = in liq'ed damages
      2. S /L controls back pay
        1. Two yrs 4 ord.
        2. Three yrs. 4 willful
      3. All payday is new viol.
    2. Rsbl Atty Fee + Cost of Litig.
      1. Mandatory only 4 prevailing P
  4. Rel. Btwn Title 7 & EPA
    1. Comparable Worth
      1. Compare dif. jobs by looking @ job eval. sys. & pay = 4 = pts
      2. Rejected 4 EPA & Title 7
      3. Only successful in
        1. Collective barg'ing in pub. sector
        2. Polit. success in some states
    2. Title 7 Broader 4 Sex Discrim. 4 Pay Claim
      1. Bennett amend. only incorp. er's defenses of EPA into Title 7, not all EPA
      2. Title 7 not need
        1. Subst'ly = work
        2. Man 2 compare w/
      3. But limited 2 disp. treatment cases

ADEA

  1. Combo of Title 7 & FLSA
    1. Coverage
      1. Er is anybody w/20 / more ee's
      2. Anybody over 40 w/o cap on age so no mandatory retirement
      3. Tracks Title 7
    2. Structure
      1. PFC
        1. Over 40
        2. Qualified
        3. Adverse axn
        4. Younger people weren't
          1. Not have 2 B lwr than 40
          2. Dif. in age help infer discrim. but not abs.
          3. Show comparison, not need replacement
      2. Er's
        1. Rebuttal / prod. evid. of legit. busi. rsn
        2. Section f
          1. Aff def.
            1. BFOQ
              1. Ez'er 4 er 2 prove here than in Title 7
              2. Same elements as Title 7 BFOQ
              3. Must have indiv. med. eval. / actual proof can't do indiv. med. eval.
              4. Need subst'l basis in fact like med. evid. of prog. in aging
            2. Bona fide sen. sys.
              1. Anything w/mandatory retirement isn't bona fide
            3. Bona fide empl. benefit plan
          2. Not aff. def.
            1. Rsbl factors other than age
            2. Discharge / otherwise discipline indiv. 4 good cause
      3. Pretext
        1. Single motive
          1. P must prove age is the factor
          2. Disprove all other factors
        2. Mixed motive
          1. Split on req'ing dir. evid. (3rd v. 2nd Cir.)
        3. Hard 2 prove
          1. Pension vesting isn't pretext
          2. But 7th Cir. req's 2 offer job if fire b/c high cost
    3. Trend 2 Reject Disp. Impact
  2. Remedies
    1. Back Pay
      1. S /L is 2 yrs.
    2. Reinstatement
    3. Liq'ed Damages Only 4 Willful Viol.: 16
      1. Double back pay
      2. Willful viol. is reckless disregard which is more than being aware of ADEA & obeying it
      3. S /L is 3 yrs
    4. No
      1. Compensatory & punitive damages
  3. Proced.: 7)d
    1. Must File Charge w/EEOC
      1. Nondeferral, w/in 180 days C/A accrues
      2. Deferral, w/in 300 days C/A accrues
    2. Rt 2 Sue Letter
      1. May file in ct. 60 days after filed w/EEOC w/o waiting 4 rt 2 sue letter
      2. Must file in ct w/in 90 days if get rt 2 sue letter
    3. If Deferral State, Must Wait 60 Days Before Filing w/Fed Ct
      1. But not specify when 2 file w/state


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May 4, 1997

Ms. Haeji Hong

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