Copyright (C)

Intro

  1. Int'l
    1. Berne Convention
      1. Nat'l treatment
      2. Min.
    2. TRIPs
  2. Policy
    1. US 2 encourage creation 4 pub's benefit
    2. Int'l 4 author's personality

Subj Matter of C

  1. Work of Authorship
    1. Lit
    2. Musical w/words
    3. Drama w/music
    4. Pantomimes & choro
    5. Pictoral, graphic, & sculptural
    6. Movie & audiovisual
    7. Sound recording
    8. Arch.
    9. Not excl. but if new, try 2 fit under old categ.
  2. Subj Matter of C Reqts
    1. Section 102 Reqts
      1. Fixed in Tangible Medium (101 def)
        1. Suff'ly stable & perm. 4 per. of more than transitory
        2. If not fixed, can use state law
        3. If fixed, then protected whether copies from fixed medium / not
        4. Only copies & phonorecords can B fixed (101 def)
          1. Phonorecords R material obj. where sounds R fixed, except movie & tv sounds
          2. Copies R anything other than phonorecords
        5. Software loaded into RAM is fixation
      2. Orig. Authorship
        1. Only need indep. creation & orig. 2 author
        2. Min. degree of artistic needed 4 C
        3. Protect exp. of ideas
        4. Photo is orig. work of authorship & equiv. 2 writing
          1. Any rendering of aesthetic / intellect is writing
          2. Creative dec's make photos orig.
    2. Unprotected Things
      1. Facts
        1. But fact compile & orig. works 4 partic. factual narrative protectible
        2. Can take facts from other bks
      2. Ideas
      3. Idea / Expression Merger Doc.
        1. No C if only limited # of ways 2 exp. ideas
        2. Split on protection
          1. If idea merge into exp., not protect
          2. If idea merge into exp., protect against verbatim / near it
        3. Gen'ly pract'al oriented work / simple visual work
        4. In series of abstraction, pt when not protect 4 nonlit'al taking of play, etc.
      4. Scenes A Faire
        1. Stock scenes / scenes that flow nec'ly
      5. Theories
        1. Speculation from facts not protected
    3. Compilation & Derivative Work: 103)b
      1. C can protect work empl'ing preexisting material so can compile / derive
      2. Compile when select, arr., / collect stuff
      3. Derivative work where contrib. something 2 pub. domain work 2 change
        1. P must contrib. more than trivial variation
        2. Might factor in artistic skill & choice
    4. Computer Prog's
      1. Can B protected as lit. works
      2. Weak protection 4 computer prog's structure in nonlit'al copying
        1. Abstraction: Isolate gen. stuff from P's prog.
        2. Filtration: Imp. Step 2 Filter Out Unprotectible Elements
          1. Ideas
          2. Eff. elements: like idea exp. merger consid. of monopoly
          3. External factors 2 prog.: like scenes a faire doc. of stand's
          4. Pub. domain
        3. Comparison of protected material & relative imp. 2 prog. as whole
      3. Weak Protection 4 User Interface
        1. Desire 4 stand. which causes prob. 2 protect user interface
          1. Driving policy rsns on eff., users' investment, monopoly
        2. Analysis
          1. P ID's what's similar
          2. C'ed work dissected 4 unprotected from protected
          3. Def scope of C
            1. In lit'al copying, still not infring. b/c unprotected method of operation (102)b)
    5. Useful Articles in Pictorial, Graphic & Sculptural
      1. Stand.
        1. Stt 101 says C 4 useful articles only 2 extent such design can B ID'ed sep'ly from / exist indep'ly from utilitarian aspect
        2. Not protect ind'al design but protect applied art
      2. Phys / Conceptual Sep'ability: Shape ID'ed from utilitarian fn
        1. Phys. sep. like lamp & statue
        2. Conceptual sep. by seeing extent 2 which work reflect artistic exp. uninhibited by fn'al consid.
        3. HR & 113)b says not prevent others from incorp'ing design into useful article unless sep'able from utilitarian aspect 4 C in pictorial, graphic / sculpt.

Excl Rts & Infring.

  1. Excl Rts: 106
    1. Reprod
      1. Copies / phonorecords
      2. Only req's subst'l similarity
    2. Rt 2 Prep. Derivative
    3. Dist.
      1. Can dist. copies & phonorecords 2 pub.
      2. Can rent but not 4 sound recording / computer prog.
      3. Doc of 1st sale 109 says owner of lawfully made copy can sell / dispose
    4. Rt 2 Perf. Pub'ly
      1. Not incl. sound recording / phonorecords
      2. Exemption 4 ed'al use by 110)1 & 2
    5. Rt 2 Disply C'ed Work Pub'ly
      1. Can disply / hang in 1 place b/c only infring. if project 2 2 places (109)c)
  2. Term: Life of Author + 50 Yrs
  3. Infring
    1. Section 501
      1. Infring. if viol. any of C owner's excl rt
    2. Three Part Analysis (4 exam purposes)
      1. P owns C
      2. D copied work
        1. Dir evid. of D's admission / testimony
        2. Circ'al evid.
          1. Access +
          2. Probative / subst'l similarity but if striking similarity so precl. possibility of indep. creation, no access proof req'ed
        3. If exact coyping incl'ing unprotected stuff, then infring. but if nonlit'al, go 2 step 3
      3. Improper approp.
        1. Total concept & feel rxn of ord. observer of intended audience
        2. Protected / unprotected elements / subst'l similarity btwn protected elements
  4. Fair Use Exception 2 C Rt: 107
    1. Def.
      1. Privilege 2 use C'ed material in rsbl matter w/o owner's consent
    2. Factors
      1. Charact. & purpose of use
        1. News
        2. Comm'l v. non profit use
        3. Scoop / bad faith 2 supplant 1st publ. rt.
        4. Transformity nat. (parody)
      2. Nat. of C'ed work
        1. Core of work (parody)
          1. Fxn over fact, creation over fact compile, & publ. over unpubl. more protected
        2. Unpubl'ed (107 only a factor, not det.)
      3. Amt & subst'lity used: Imp. factor
        1. Justif. as well as how much b/c factors looked @ together (parody)
      4. Effect on mkt: Imp. factor
        1. Fair use if not materially impair mkt'ability of C'ed work
        2. Derivative mkt (parody)
    3. Parody: Cite 2 Parody Cases
      1. Hospitable 2 parody & transformative use
    4. Rev. Engr. of Computer Prog. OK If
      1. Disassembly only way 2 gain access 2 computer prog's idea & fn'al stuff +
      2. Legit rsn 2 do it

Formalities

  1. C Notice: 401
    1. C , Yr, Name
    2. Three Per's
      1. Before 1/1/78, publ. w/o notice would put it in pub. domain unless limited publ. doc.
        1. Limited publ. doc. where can dist. w/o losing C if only 2 def'ly selected group 4 limited purpose w/o rt of defusion, repro, / sale
      2. Decennial per. of 1/1/78 - 3/1/89 where w/o notice, then save by stt.
      3. After 3/1/89, w/o notice ok
  2. Reg
    1. Not Req'ed Except 4 Suing 4 US Work

This material is copyrighted by the author. Use of this material for profit is strictly prohibited without written consent of author.

12/7/1996

Ms. Haeji Hong

Go Back to Law School Notes

Go Back to IP Outline 1