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CHRONOLOGICAL OUTLINE OF ANCIENT GREEK HISTORY
6000
NEOLITHIC PERIOD: agricultural villages
3200 ---------------------------------------------------------
EARLY BRONZE AGE
2000
MIDDLE BRONZE AGE
Arrival of Greek speakers in Balkan Peninsula (2000?)
Minoan palace civilization: Knossos
Eruption of Thera (ca. 1628)
1500
LATE BRONZE AGE
Mycenaean palace civilization; Linear B
Trojan War (ca. 1225)
Breakdown of Mycenaean civilization (1200-1100)
1100 ---------------------------------------------------------
DARK AGE
"Dorian Invasion"; Ionian Migration; iron metallurgy
800
ARCHAIC ERA
Greek poleis: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes, etc.
Near Eastern influence; alphabet
First Olympiad (776)
Colonial expansion: Black Sea, S. Italy, Sicily, etc.
Homer (ca. 725) and Hesiod (ca. 700)
Oligarchy vs. democracy; tyranny
500
CLASSICAL PERIOD
Persian Wars (499-479)
Athenian Empire; radical democracy
Peloponnesian War (431-404)
Rise of Macedon
King Philip II
Alexander the Great (r. 336-323)
323
HELLENISTIC PERIOD
Macedon; Seleucid Empire
Ptolemaic Egypt: Alexandria
Rise of Rome: destruction of Corinth (146)
Suicide of Cleopatra (30)
30
POLIS AND POLITEIA
Executive: King / Magistrates (archons, ephors, etc.)
Advisory: Council (Areopagus, boule, gerousia, etc.)
Ratificatory: Assembly (ekklesia, apellai, etc.)
by 700 Athenian unification (synoecism by Theseus)
|
683 Archon system at Athens
| Social classes: hippeis / zeugitae / thetes
|
c. 675 Hoplite military innovation: Pheidon
|
632 Cylon's attempted tyranny
|
621 Draco and the Law
|
594 Solon and reform: "seisachtheia"
| --debt reduction (n.b. hektemoroi)
| --abolition of debt slavery
>
| --revision of law code
| --establishment of people's courts (Heliaaea)
| --extension of citizenship
| --four-part social classification (by weaalth)
| --increased eligibility for Council and AAssembly
| --economic reforms
|
560 Tyranny at Athens
| Peisistratus (560-546-527)
| Hipparchus (527-514) & Hippias (527-510)
| --financial reforms
| --unification, increased sense of nationhhood
| --vigorous foreign policy
| --public amenities, patronage of religionn and the arts
|
510 Alcmaeonids (with Spartan help) vs. Hippias
|
508 Preeminence of Cleisthenes
| --tribal reorganization (10 tribes; 139 ddemes)
| --Council of 500 (probouleutic function)
| --board of generals ("strategoi") >
| --ostracism
THE PERSIAN WARS
Expansion of the Persian Empire
Cyrus (559-530) vs. Croesus of Lydia, ca. 544
Cambyses (530-522) in Egypt
Darius I, "the Great" (522-486): imperial ambitions
in Europe; operations in Thrace and beyond the
Danube. Phoenician sea-power plus Persian land
power; mercantile competition in the west.
Collusion with Hippias.
499 War, Phase I: Ionian Revolt and aftermath
|
| Aristagoras of Miletus; Greeks of Ionia expel
| Persian-controlled tyrants
498 Sardis burned
|
495 Persians defeat Greeks at Lade
494 Fall of Miletus
|
492 Mardonius's abortive invasion of Greece
|
490 Persian expedition (ca. 20,000 with cavalry) against
| Eretria and Athens; Battle of Marathon: 10,000
| Athenians (and Plataeans) under Miltiades.
|
|
|
| Intermezzo
|
486 Xerxes succeeds Darius I
483 Laurium silver strike / Themistocles
481 Formation of Hellenic League
480 Persians complete Athos canal and Hellespont ship-bridges
|
|
|
| War, Phase II: Expedition of Xerxes
|
| Persian forces: 100-150,000 men, 500-1,000 ships
| Hellenic League forces: 30-40,000 infantry, ca. 330 ships
| Greek commanders: Leonidas, Themistocles, Pausanias
|
480 Battles of Thermopylae (land), Artemisium (sea), and
| Salamis (sea)
479 Battles of Plataea (land) and Mycale (land)
PENTEKONTAETIA
478 Formation of the Delian League: "The Athenians and Their
| Allies"; Aristides
|
| Themistocles ostracized ca. 471
| Cimon predominant strategos
|
| Actions at Eion, Scyros, Carystus, Naxos, the Eurymedon
| River, and Thasos
|
464 Earthquake at Sparta
|
462 Cimon rebuffed at Sparta; rebels evacuated from
| Mt. Ithome
| Ephialtes and Pericles vs. the Areopagus
|
461 Cimon ostracized; Ephialtes assassinated
|
| "First Peloponnesian War" (461-446)
|
| Pericles and radical democracy:
| --payment for public service
| --wider eligibility for office
| --increased use of the lot (sortition)
|
457 The Long Walls
|
454 Athenian setback in Egypt; League treasury relocated
| Athenian Tribute Lists begin
|
449 Peace of Callias
|
| Pericles summons pan-Hellenic conference
447 Parthenon construction begins; Coinage Decree
|
| Disaffection of "allies"; cleruchies in Euboea, Naxos,
| Andros, the Chersonese
446 The Thirty Years' Peace
|
443 Thucydides, son of Melesias, ostracized
|
440 Revolt of Samos
|
433 Athens and Corcyra
432 Athens and Potidaea
| Athens and Megara
|
431 Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War
PELOPONNESIAN WAR
1) "Short Fuses": Corcyra, Potidaea, Megara
2) "Long Fuse": Thucydides' "real cause"
432 Peloponnesian League members meet at Sparta
| Corinthians and Athenians present their arguments
431 Sparta's ultimatum to Athens; war begins
| Pericles' war policy
430 Epitaphios (Funeral Speech) by Pericles
| Plague at Athens
|
429 Death of Pericles
|
427 Revolt of Mytilene: Cleon vs. Diodotus in the ekklesia
|
425 Pylos/Sphacteria
|
424 Thucydides (the historian) exiled
|
422 Brasidas vs. Cleon at Amphipolis
|
421 Peace of Nicias
|
|
416 Besiegement and fall of Melos
|
415 Sicilian expedition: Alcibiades, Nicias, Lamachus
| Gylippus at Syracuse
413 Athenians defeated in Sicily
|
411 Oligarchic coup at Athens
410 Cyzicus falls to Athenians (Alcibiades)
|
406 Battle of Arginusae
|
405 Battle of Aegospotami; Lysander
|
404 Surrender of Athens:
--loss of fleet
--destruction of Long Walls and Piraeus walls
--loss of imperial holdings
FOURTH-CENTURY GREECE, THROUGH THE CAREER OF PHILIP II
404 End of the Peloponnesian War
|
| Era of Shifting Alliances and Leagues of More Equal Type
|
401 Persia: Cyrus vs. Artaxerxes II (Battle of Cunaxa)
399-96 Sparta vs. Persian satraps
|
394 Battle of Coronea: Quadruple Alliance vs. Sparta
| Battle of Cnidus: Persians & Conon vs. Spartans
387 The "King's Peace"
|
378 Second Athenian Sea League formed
374 Athens signs Peace with Sparta
371 Battle of Leuctra;
| Epaminondas liberates Messenia
368-65 Philip II hostage at Thebes
362 Battle of Mantinea
|
|
| Philip II and the Rise of Macedon
|
359 Accession of Philip to power
358-56 Victories against hill tribes, Illyrians, and at
| Amphipolis, the Krenides (Philippi), Pydna, and
| Potidaea; marriage to Olympias and birth of Alexander
|
352 Involvement in Thessaly; beginning of navy
348 Philip takes Olynthus; Demosthenes (vs. Isocrates)
346 Peace with Athens; Isocrates' Philippus
345-42 Philip reorganizes Macedon, Thessaly; in Illyria; in
| E. Thrace
341-40 Philip vs. Athens in the straits; Alexandropolis
338 Chaeronea (4 Aug); League of Corinth
337 Philip marries Cleopatra
336 Parmenio & Attalus with advance force in Asia Minor;
| Philip assassinated
|
336 Accession of Alexander the Great
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
356 Birth in Pella
|
343 Aristotle becomes Alexander's tutor
|
338 Commands left wing at Chaeronea; embassy to Athens
|
336 Accession to power; claims position of hegemon of
| the League of Corinth
|
335 Expeditions to Thrace, Illyria, etc.; revolt of Thebes
|
334 Crossing to Asia; beginning of Persian expedition;
| Battle of the Granicus
|
333 March through Asia Minor; Battle of Issus; "call me
| 'King of all Asia'"
|
332 Byblos; Sidon; Tyre (siege from Jan to July); Gaza
|
331 Egypt; founding of Alexandria (7 April); consults
| Zeus-Ammon at Siwah; Battle of Gaugamela (1 Oct);
| Babylon; Susa
|
330 Persepolis; Ecbatana (Parmenio & Harpalus left);
| death of Darius
|
329 Crosses the Hindu Kush; Bactria; death of Bessus
|
328 Campaign against Spitamenes; murder of Cleitus the Black
|
327 Sogdiana; marriage to Roxane; invasion of India
|
326 Battle of the Hydaspes (vs. Porus); death of Bucephalas;
| mutiny at the Hyphasis; fleet & army move down the Indus
|
325 Campaign against Brahmin cities; march through Gedrosian
| Desert; rejoins Nearchus at Harmozia
|
324 Persepolis; Susa; Ecbatana; death of Hephaestion
|
323 Babylon: falls ill and dies (10 June)